Electrochlorination generates Sodium Hypochlorite, on-site and on-need, without the need for any additives or particular treatments. The electric current passes through the seawater by the MMO Anodes. Now, the electrolysis generates the Sodium Hypochlorite that is the main product of the reaction. The hydrogen gas, as the by-product of the reaction, is going to be separated due to its low gravity. The Electrochlorination reaction could be formulated as below:
NaCl + H2O + ENERGY —> NaOCl + H2
Technically, Electrolysis occurs in an undivided cell when a DC passes through a saline water solution (Seawater or brine solution):
At the Anode: Oxidation of chloride ions to produce chlorine
At the Cathode: Reduction of water to produce sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and Hydrogen (H2).
Liberated chlorine reacts with the sodium hydroxide to produce sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) immediately.
Sodium Hypochlorite, also known as Hypo, Bleach, or Liquid Chlorine, is a powerful oxidant that is used worldwide for the chlorination of water. NaOCl or Sodium Hypochlorite is generally efficient in:
- Anti-biofouling to preventing the so-called sliming phenomena, or mussel/barnacle growth
- Disinfection of drinking water
- General anti-bacterial treatment the Process Water
- Chemical treatment that would happen in bleaching, removal of iron, or manganese
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What is the Electrochlorination process?
Electro chlorination process is called the electrolysis process where sodium hypochlorite is generated from the salty water due to the applied current to the anode and cathode (electrodes) when the salty water passes through the plates which have been connected to the direct electrical current, electrolysis phenomenon takes place as follows:
- NaCl decomposes into Sodium (Na+) and Chlorine (Cl−) ions
- Water decomposes to Hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH− ) ions
Electrodes attract ions in such a way that positively charged ions tend to move to negative (cathode) and negatively charged ions incline to positive (Anode)
On the Anode side, accumulation of Cl- results in chlorine gas (Cl2 )
- 2 Cl− → Cl2 + 2 e−
On the Cathode side, Hydrogen gas will be generated
- 2 H2O + 2 e− → H2 + 2 OH−
Generated OH− are free to diffuse to the anode and react with Na+
Overall reaction is as per below;
- 2 NaCl + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 + Cl2
Finally, hypochlorite at the anode side will be formed as a result of interaction between gas chlorine and sodium Hydroxide
- Cl2 + 2 NaOH → NaCl + NaClO + H2O
As a result of the above reaction, a low concentration of sodium hypochlorite (Product) is produced as well as hydrogen (By-product). The product as a disinfectant will be stored in a hypochlorite tank to inject into the mainstream to disinfect the harmful micro-organisms, viruses, and bacteria present in the water, pipeline to guarantee the water is safe for the consumption.
The comparative edges of low concentration-sodium hypochlorite is to offer the most reliable solutions for crossed challenges of “toxic by-products” and “staff requirement” In comparison with conventional chlorination methods including commercial sodium hypochlorite and chlorine gas, in which a high amount of concentration is considered hazardous and creates THM which is not safe. Therefore, Electrochlorination generates Sodium Hypochlorite as an effective disinfectant and it is an alternative to hazardous, high concentrated commercial chlorine products e.g. gaseous chlorine, commercial hypo, and dry chlorine (granular calcium hypochlorite).
ULTRANODE Electrochlorination offers a safe, economical and independent solution with the following priorities;
- On-Site hypochlorite generation: No transportation
- On-demand: when it is required
- No bulk storage: Safety
- Basic/safe inputs: water and salt or seawater + electricity